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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.

Books

General Author's last name, Author's first name. Title. Publisher, Year. 

Single Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999. 

Two or more works by Same Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968. 

Two Authors p. 21

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004. 

Three or More Authors p. 22

Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed., Wiley, 1988. 

Note: You may also include full names of all the authors in the order listed on the title page.

No Author p.24

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. JIST Works, 2000. 

Book: Multivolume

If using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. U of Chicago P, 1968-78. 

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol. 2., U of Chicago P, 1969.

If the one volume you are using has its own individual title, you may cite the book without reference to the other volumes.

Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. U of Chicago P, 1969. 

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. Greenwood Press, 2005. 47-64.  

For additional examples and explanations, see pages 20-53 and 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Print Articles

General Author's last name, Author's first name. "Article Title." Journal Title, vol. , no. , date, page(s). 

Journal with Volume Numbers

Graham, Sarah. “Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies, vol. 40, no.2, 2006, pp. 418-19. 

Journal with only Issue Numbers

Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. “Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships.” Journal of Marketing, no. 70, 2006, pp. 154-69. 

Magazine (published week or every two weeks)

Reed, Stanley. “Seeing Past the War.” Business Week, 21 Aug. 2006, pp. 35-36. 

Newspaper

Seward, Zachary. “Colleges Expand Early Admissions.” Wall Street Journal, 14 Dec. 2006, Eastern ed.: D1-D2. 

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 20-53 and 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Online Articles

For scholarly journals that only exist in electronic form on the Web, cite the work like you would for a print article, only conclude the entry with the following items:

  1. Medium of publication consulted (Web)
  2. Date of access (day, month, and year)

If the publication does not include page numbers, use "n. pag." in place of the page numbers.

Example:

Shah, Parilah Mohd, and Fauziah Ahmad. "A Comparative Account of the Bilingual Education Programs in Malaysia and the United States." GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies 7.2 (2007): 63-77. 8 Nov. 2008.

 

For articles retrieved full text from an online database, include the name of the database.

Example:

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000): n. pag. Project Muse. 20 May 2007.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 20-53 and 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Non-Periodical Works Cited Only Online

An entry for a nonperiodical publication on the Web usually contains most of the following components, in sequence:

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work
  2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work
  3. Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if distinct from item 2
  4. Date of access (day, month, and year)
  5. Location (URL or DOI)

Each item is followed by a period except for items 3 and 4, which are followed by a comma. Untitled works may be identified by a genre label (e.g., Home page, Introduction, Online posting), neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks, in the place where the title goes.

Example:

Quade, Alex. "Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines." CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007.  21 Mar. 2007.

Example with no author:

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio. Natl. Public Radio, 20 July 2007.

Website Home Page:

Liu, Alan, ed. Home page. Voice of the Shuttle. Dept. of English, U of California, Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2008.

Online Map:

"Maplewood, New Jersey." Map. Google Maps. Google, 23 July 2007. 

Tweet (Twitter Post) p. 24

@username (Real Name). "The tweet in its entirety." Twitter,Date, Time, Twitter link.

 @smithdogg (John Smith). "This has sure been a hot summer." 12 August 2011, 2:36 p.m. 

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Online Works Cited with Print Publication Data

If the nonperiodical work you are citing also appeared in print, you may determine that it is important to include the bibliographic data for the print publication as part of your entry. A book that was scanned for access in a database, for example, is usually cited this way. Instead of concluding with Print as the medium of publication, record the following information in sequence:

  1. Title of the database or website (italicized)
  2. Medium of publication consulted (Web)
  3. Date of access (day, month, and year)

Example:

Whittier, John G. "A Prayer." The Freedmen's Book. Ed. L. Maria Child. Boston, 1866. 178. Google Book Search. Web. 15 Aug. 2008.

Example:

Whitman, Walt. Preface. Leaves of Grass. By Whitman. Brooklyn, 1855. iii-xii. The Walt Whitman Archive. Web. 12 Mar. 2008.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Personal Interviews, Films, Television Programs

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Personal Interview

Bush, George W. Personal Interview. 10 Feb. 2007.

Film

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Universal Pictures, 1982. 

Recorded Film

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Directed by Chris Columbus. 2001. Warner Bros., 2002. 

Broadcast TV Program

“The Soup Nazi.” Seinfeld. NBC. WTHR, Indianapolis. 2 Nov. 1995. 

Recorded TV Program "The Soup Nazi." Seinfeld: Season 7. NBC, 2006. DVD.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).

Sound Recordings, Musical Compositions, Performances

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Entire Albums

The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records, 1967. LP.

Individual Songs

Sinatra, Frank. “Strangers in the Night.” Rec. 1966. My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner, 1996. CD.

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, Sally, narr. To Kill a Mockingbird. 1960. By Harper Lee. Recorded Books, 1988. Audiocassette.

Musical Composition

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932. CD.

Musical Score

If part of a series, include that information after the medium.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. 1811. New York: Belwin, 1994. Print. Kalmus ConcertMasters Series.

Performance

The Nutcracker. Dir. Richard Clark. Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis. 2 Dec. 2008. Performance.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see pp. 102-115 in the MLA Handbook (2016).