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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.

Guidelines

The Bibliography Style is preferred by many in the humanities (e.g., literature, history, and the arts). This style presents bibliographic information in notes (either footnotes or endnotes) and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

NOTE: If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the note citations can be quite concise, since readers can turn to the bibliography for publication details. In works with no bibliography or only a selected list, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited. Subsequent citations of that work may then be concise.

Each example includes a note [N] followed by a bibliographic entry [B]. After the first book entry, all Note examples will use the full version. To make it concise, use just the author's last name(s), the main title, and page number(s).

Books

Book:
Single Author

First note citation in a paper with full bibliography or subsequent citations with or without:
N:   1. Gutman, Mozart, 41.

First note citation in a paper without full bibliography:
N:   1. Robert W. Gutman, Mozart: A Cultural Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 41.

B: Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book:
Two Authors

N:   7. Randolph Hock and Gary Price, The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher (Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004), 93-4.

B: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004.

Book:
Four or More Authors

N:   2. William Davidson et al., Retailing Management, 6th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), 149.

B: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Thomas Jones, and Ronald Stampfl. Retailing Management. 6th ed. New York: Wiley, 1988.

Book:
No Author

If no personal author's name is listed on the title page, the organization/corporation is listed as author, even if it is also given as publisher.

N:   5. JIST Works, NAICS Desk Reference, 73.

B: JIST Works. NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. Indianapolis: JIST Works, 2000.

Book: Multivolume

When citing the work as a whole, give the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

N:   8. Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968-78, 2:341.

B: Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968-78.

When citing only one volume:

N: Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 341.

B: Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. Vol. 2, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Chapter in a Book

N:   6. Robert F. Willson, Jr., "William Shakespeare's Theater," in The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 52-3.

B: Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.

N:   3. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

B: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/. Also available in print form and as a CD-ROM.

 

For additional examples, see pages 162-181 in the Turabian Manual (2007).

Sound Recordings & Music Scores

Recordings are often listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subheading.

Entire Album

N:   14. The Beatles, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band, Capitol Records SMAS-2653, 33 rpm, 1967.

B: The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records SMAS-2653. 33 rpm. 1967.

Individual Song

N:   9. Frank Sinatra, "Strangers in the Night," On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra, Warner, audiocassette, 1996.

B: Sinatra, Frank. "Strangers in the Night." On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner. Audiocassette. 1996.

Spoken Word Recording

N:   5. Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird, read by Sally Darling, Recorded Books, CD, 1988.

B: Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books. CD. 1988.

Music Score

Music scores are treated basically like books.

N:   3. Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92, (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932).

B: Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932.

Live Performance

N:   2. The Nutcracker, Butler Ballet, Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis, December 2, 2006.

B: NONE - Cite any kind of live performance only in the notes or just in the text itself.

 

For additional examples, see pages 199-205 in the Turabian Manual (2007).