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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.


The most recent editions of Turabian's A Manual for Writers and The Chicago Manual of Style are kept on the Reference shelves.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2010.
REF 808.027 C432 2003    

Turabian, Kate L. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for students, 7th edition. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007.
REF 808.02 T865  


Why doesn't everyone use the same style?

Not only does source citation give proper credit to the origin of an idea, quote, or fact, it also helps the reader by giving information about the author(s) and/or editor, quality of the source, how long ago it was published, and where it was published.  If the reader wants to study the topic further, all the information necessary to retrieve the original source should be easily available.

Different scholarly readers have different interests which have led to the diversity of documentation styles.  For example, in business, education, and the social sciences, the date of publication and the author is very important to the reader.  Therefore, in-text parenthetical citations used in those disciplines tend to include the year of publication (e.g. APA). 

Some scientific publications often use a style of numbering the works cited and then placing the number in the text as a superscript (e.g. CSE style).  If the author or year is important to the discussion, the writer has the option of putting that information in the sentence itself.

In scholarship associated with disciplines in the humanities, publication date is not as relevant in the context of reading.  Therefore, the documentation style of the Modern Languages Association (MLA) leaves out the date when citing in the text.  That information can be retrieved in the “works cited” list at the end of the document.

Some disciplines, such as History and Religion, require comment on the sources or additional explanation.  To expedite this need without disrupting the reading of the document, citations occur in the form of notes at the bottom of the page.  These disciplines may use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) or similar styles.  Additionally, in these disciplines a Bibliography of all works consulted is helpful to the scholarly reader, as opposed to just a listing works cited in the document.


The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical.

Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, developed her guide for students and researchers writing papers, theses, and dissertations. Her manual is based on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style and departs from it in few places. "Turabian," as her guide is called, synthesizes the rules most important for students' papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that "Chicago" provides. 

For more information on the history of the CMOS, visit


The differences between the Chicago and Turabian styles are mainly seen in how notes are numbered. 


In Turabian style, use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space in the note, as in the following example:

1. Chicago