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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.

Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing

In-Text Citations

If quoting a source, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) of the work.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020, p. 78).

If you use more than one work by the same author, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020a, p. 78).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Smith, 2020, p. 78).

If a source has 1 or 2 authors, list the authors' last names every citation. (Luna, 2020) or (Salas & August, 2020)

If a source has 3 or more authors, list the first author's last name with et al. every citation. (Martin et al., 2020)

(For 6th edition guidelines, see the chart below.)

If using the author's name in a narrative citation, do not include it in the parentheses.

Example: Smith observed so and so (2020).
Example: In a 2020 study, Smith suggested that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (p. 78).

If no author name is available, use the first element of the reference entry (usually the title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

Example: The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog (Fox in Socks, 2020).

If the source has no page numbers, use a paragraph number or section label.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020, para. 5).

6th Ed. In-text Citation Examples by Number of Authors

Type of Citation First Citation in Text Subsequent Citations in Text Parenthetical Format, First Citation in Text Parenthetical Format, Subsequent Citations in Text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by three to five authors Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Groups as authors (no abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

Source: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: Author.