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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.

In-text Citation Guidelines

In-Text Citations

If a source has 1 or 2 authors, list the authors' last names every citation. (Luna, 2020) or (Salas & August, 2020)

If a source has 3 or more authors, list the first author's last name with et al. every citation. (Martin et al., 2020)

If quoting a source, cite the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) of the work.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020, p. 78).

If the source has no page numbers, use a paragraph number or section label.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020, para. 5).

If you use more than one work by the same author, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Smith, 2020a, p. 78).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Smith, 2020, p. 78).

If using the author's name in a narrative citation, just include the date in the parentheses.

Example: Smith observed so and so (2020).
Example: In a 2020 study, Smith suggested that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (p. 78).

If no author name is available, use the first element of the reference entry (usually the title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

Example: The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog (Fox in Socks, 2020).

 

In-text Citation Examples

Type of Citation First Narrative Citation Subsequent Narrative Citations  First Parenthetical Citation Subsequent Parenthetical Citations
By one author Walker (2007)   (Walker, 2007)  
By two authors Walker and Allen (2004)   (Walker & Allen, 2004)  
By three or more authors Bradley et al. (1999)   (Bradley et al., 1999)  
         
Group as author (readily identified through abbreviation) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Group as author (no abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005)   (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)  

SOURCE: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000