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Citation/Style Guides

Welcome to the Citation/Style Guides research guide.

Author Element

One author

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011. 

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Two authors

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004. 

Three or more authors

Charon, Rita, et al. The Principles and Practice of Narrative Medicine. Oxford UP, 2017. 

Lack of surname

Lady Gaga.  The Fame. Interscope Records, 2008.

Organizations, groups, and government authors

Beatles. Revolver. EMI Records, 1966.

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

For additional examples and explanations, see pages 111-121 in the MLA Handbook (2021).

Title of Source Element

  • Use the title of the cited work.
  • If it doesn't have a title, create a description.
  • Very long titles can be shortened with an ellipsis.

For examples and explanation, see pages 121-133 of the MLA Handbook (2021).

Title of Container Element

  • A container is a work that contains another work.
  • A journal is the container of an article.
  • An anthology is the container of a a short story.
  • A website might be the container of a post or image.

For examples and explanation, see pages 134-145 of the MLA Handbook (2021).

Contributor Element

  • Translator
  • Editor
  • Director

For examples and explanation, see pages 145-153 of the MLA Handbook (2021).